The Expanding Complexity of Estrogen Receptor Signaling in the Cardiovascular System

The Expanding Complexity of Estrogen Receptor Signaling in the Cardiovascular System

Sara Menazza, Elizabeth Murphy

Effects of estrogen on the heart. Estrogen has many pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular system. Estrogen can impact cardiovascular health and disease by direct effects: (1) on the vascular endothelial cells promoting vasorelaxation, cell proliferation, and migration; (2) on vascular smooth muscle cells decreasing cell proliferation and migration; and (3) on cardiomyocytes reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol level and protecting against insulin resistance, infarct size, and ischemia–reperfusion injury and cardiac hypertrophy. [Powerpoint File]

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