Posts Tagged: stroke

Environmental Determinants of Cardiovascular Disease

Environmental Determinants of Cardiovascular Disease

Aruni Bhatnagar

The effect of sunlight on cardiovascular health. The visible range of sunlight regulates the master clock located in the pacemaker neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which sets the intrinsic 24-h cycle and synchronizes the light-insensitive peripheral clocks to coordinate cycles of waking, sleeping, and feeding. The UVB radiation converts 7-dehydrocholesterol in the epidermis to pre–vitamin D3, which undergoes thermal isomerization to vitamin D. Vitamin D3 formed in the skin appear in the circulation and is then transported to the liver where it is converted to 25(OH)D3. In kidney, 25(OH) D3 undergoes hydroxylation to form biologically active 1,25(OH)2D. The UVA radiation induces photodegradation of nitrosothiols, such as S-nitrosylglutathione, which leads to the generation of NO, an important regulator of blood pressure. (Illustration credit: Ben Smith.) [Powerpoint File]

Atrial Fibrillation Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Outcomes

Atrial Fibrillation: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Outcomes

Laila Staerk, Jason A. Sherer, Darae Ko, Emelia J. Benjamin, Robert H. Helm

Atrial fibrillation (AF) risk factors (RFs) induce structural and histopathologic changes to the atrium that are characterized by fibrosis, inflammation, and cellular and molecular changes. Such changes increase susceptibility to AF. Persistent AF further induces electric and structural remodeling that promotes perpetuation of AF. AF also may lead to the development of additional AF risk factors that further alters the atrial substrate. Finally, AF is associated with several clinical outcomes. *There are limited data supporting the association. BMI, body mass index; ERP, effective refractory period; HF, heart failure; IL, interleukin; MI, myocardial infarction; OSA, obstructive sleep apnea; SEE, systemic embolism event; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; and VTE, venous thromboembolism. [Powerpoint File]

Cardioembolic Stroke

Cardioembolic Stroke

Hooman Kamel, Jeff S. Healey

Overlap among cryptogenic stroke, embolic stroke of undetermined source, and cardioembolic stroke. [Powerpiont File]

Acute Ischemic Stroke Therapy Overview

Acute Ischemic Stroke Therapy Overview

Luciana Catanese, Joseph Tarsia, Marc Fisher

A schematic representation of the cascade of ischemic injury over time. Courtesy of Dr Won-Ki Kim, Seoul Korea (Illustration Credit: Ben Smith). BBB indicates blood–brain barrier. [Powerpoint FIle]

Heart–Brain Axis: Effects of Neurologic Injury on Cardiovascular Function

Heart–Brain Axis: Effects of Neurologic Injury on Cardiovascular Function

Pouya Tahsili-Fahadan, Romergryko G. Geocadin

Neural control of the cardiovascular system. Afferent and efferent pathways are shown in green and red lines, respectively. Some potential sites for therapeutic interventions are illustrated in the blue text boxes. The figure has been simplified to illustrate the major cortical, subcortical, and brain stem areas involved in control of the cardiovascular function. Most of the shown areas are interconnected. For anatomic details and physiological effects of the illustrated pathways, please refer to the text. [Powerpoint File]

Stroke Caused by Atherosclerosis of the Major Intracranial Arteries

Stroke Caused by Atherosclerosis of the Major Intracranial Arteries

Chirantan Banerjee, Marc I. Chimowitz

Histological cross-section of intracranial atherosclerosis in basilar artery. Image courtesy Dr Tanya Turan. Red arrow—fibrous tissue, blue arrow—vessel wall, and green arrow—lipid [Powerpoint File]

Global Burden of Stroke

Global Burden of Stroke

Valery L. Feigin, Bo Norrving, George A. Mensah

Age-standardized stroke disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and mortality rates per 100,000 person-years in various regions of the world in 2013 (both sexes, all ages) [Powerpoint File]

Evolving Treatments for Acute Ischemic Stroke

Evolving Treatments for Acute Ischemic Stroke

Charlotte Zerna*, Janka Hegedus*, Michael D. Hill

Computed tomographic perfusion image. Time to maximum (Tmax) functional maps show ischemic core volume (tissue that will die if reperfusion occurs after 90 minutes). There is no region with low cerebral blood volume (CBV). [Powerpoint File]