Posts Tagged: pericytes

Cerebral Vascular Disease and Neurovascular Injury in Ischemic Stroke

Cerebral Vascular Disease and Neurovascular Injury in Ischemic Stroke

Xiaoming Hu, T. Michael De Silva, Jun Chen, Frank M. Faraci

Pericytes play multifaceted roles in ischemia and reperfusion. Pericytes display both beneficial and detrimental functions during ischemia and reperfusion phases, and contribute significantly to the blood–brain barrier damage and repair. 1. Pericyte contraction and dilation regulate cerebral blood flow in the ischemic and perilesion areas. 2. Pericyte protects other neurovascular unit (NVU) components through releasing protective/trophic factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin (Ang-1), and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). 3. Phagocytotic pericytes help to eliminate dead or injured tissue in the ischemic core, which in turn mitigates local inflammation and reduce secondary tissue damage. 4. Pericyte–endothelial cell interaction promotes angiogenesis after stroke. 5) Pericytes have the potential to serve as an origin of NVU components during tissue repair after ischemic stroke. Illustration credit: Ben Smith. [Powerpoint File]

Cerebral Vascular Disease and Neurovascular Injury in Ischemic Stroke

Cerebral Vascular Disease and Neurovascular Injury in Ischemic Stroke

Xiaoming Hu, T. Michael De Silva, Jun Chen, Frank M. Faraci

Structural alterations in endothelial cells are critical for blood–brain barrier (BBB) opening early after ischemic stroke. A, The opening of paracellular pathways: cytoskeletal rearrangements and related signaling in endothelial cells. B, The transcellular pathway of BBB leakage. ADF indicates actin-depolymerizing factor; CaM, calmodulin; LIMK, LIM kinase; MLC, myosin light chain; MLCK, MLC kinase; MLCP, MLC phosphatase; MMP, matrix metallopeptidase; ROCK: Rho kinase; TESK1, testicular protein kinase 1; and ZO, zonula occluden. [Powerpoint File]