Posts Tagged: microbiota

Gut Microbiota in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

Gut Microbiota in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

W.H. Wilson Tang, Takeshi Kitai, Stanley L. Hazen

Gut microbiota and possible molecular pathways linked to cardiovascular and cardiometabolic diseases. BAT indicates brown adipose tissue; FXR, farnesoid X receptor; GLP, glucagon-like peptide; GPR, G-protein–coupled receptor; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; PYY, peptide YY; TLR, toll-like receptor; TMA, trimethylamine; and TMAO, trimethylamine N-oxide. [Powerpoint File]

Brain–Gut–Bone Marrow Axis: Implications for Hypertension and Related Therapeutics

Brain–Gut–Bone Marrow Axis: Implications for Hypertension and Related Therapeutics

Monica M. Santisteban, Seungbum Kim, Carl J. Pepine, Mohan K. Raizada

Brain–gut–bone marrow (BM) axis. Increases in prohypertensive stimuli, such as angiotensin II (Ang II), enhance neuronal activity and trigger neuroinflammatory pathways in cardioregulatory brain centers to result in sympathoexcitation. Sympathetic activity to the BM induces mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells, and Ang II stimulates their differentiation into inflammatory cells. These cells may then migrate to the brain to become microglia/macrophages and propagate neuroinflammation, as well as to the gut to contribute to low-grade intestinal inflammation. Sympathetic activity to the gut could modulate motility as well as the local immune response. Finally, the low-grade inflammation of the gut coupled with alterations in the gut microbiota may result in bacterial metabolites entering circulation, where they could negatively affect both brain neuronal activity as well as the BM immune cells. This triangular interaction may play an important role in perpetuating the progression of hypertension and may be critical in the establishment of resistant hypertension. CMP indicates common myeloid progenitor; HTN, hypertension; PSA, parasympathetic nerve activity; PVN, paraventricular nucleus; and SNA, sympathetic nerve activity. [Powerpoint File]