Posts Tagged: epigenetics

Overview of High Throughput Sequencing Technologies to Elucidate Molecular Pathways in Cardiovascular Diseases

Overview of High Throughput Sequencing Technologies to Elucidate Molecular Pathways in Cardiovascular Diseases

Jared M. Churko, Gary L. Mantalas, Michael P. Snyder, Joseph C. Wu

Nanopore technology. Third-generation sequencing is expected to measure the change in ion flow (current) within a membrane as small molecules are passed through a small pore inside the membrane. Different current profiles will, therefore, indicate which nucleotide passed through and in which order. [Powerpoint File]

Epigenetic Modifications of Stem Cells: A Paradigm for the Control of Cardiac Progenitor Cells

Epigenetic Modifications of Stem Cells: A Paradigm for the Control of Cardiac Progenitor Cells

Yonggang Zhou, Johnny Kim, Xuejun Yuan, Thomas Braun

Epigenetic mechanisms involved in embryonic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. A, Alteration of epigenetic modifications during ES cell differentiation. In ES cells, transcriptionally active pluripotency genes locate within euchromatin regions marked by H3K4me3 and H3K9ac. Differentiation genes are transcriptionally silent and locate within heterochromatin regions characterized by H3K9me3 and 5mC. Reconfiguration of chromatin structure occurs during ES cell differentiation, whereas euchromatic regions, in particular those associated with pluripotency genes, are transformed to heterochromatin. An inverse picture is seen for chromatin regions associated with differentiation. Chromatin modifiers that confer euchromatin and heterochromatin transition include DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs); histone methyltransferase SETDB1, MLL/Wdr5 complex; histone demethylase Jmjd1a, Jmjd2c, Kdm5b; histone acetyltransferase GCN5; and ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex CHD1, Brg1, Tip60–p400 complex. B, Bivalent chromatin domains and epigenetic control of lineage commitment. In pluripotent ES cells, lineage-committed genes are in a transcriptionally poised state and show bivalent epigenetic modifications: active H3K4me3 and repressive H3K27me3. 5hmC occurs in bivalent domains as well. On lineage commitment, genes controlling a distinct cell lineage maintain H3K4me3, remove H3K27me3, and become activated. Genes controlling other lineages maintain H3K27me3, gain H3K9me3 and 5mC, and become fully silenced. Chromatin modifiers that regulate bivalent chromatin domains include DNA methyltransferase DNMT1; TET1; histone methyltransferase/demethylase complex MLL/Dpy-30, MLL2/Jmjd3/UTX complex, PRC2 complex, and LSD1. [Powerpoint File]

MicroRNAs and Stem Cells: Control of Pluripotency, Reprogramming, and Lineage Commitment

MicroRNAs and Stem Cells: Control of Pluripotency, Reprogramming, and Lineage Commitment

Eva-Marie Heinrich, Stefanie Dimmeler

MicroRNAs (miRs) in cardiovascular lineage commitment. Some miRs have been shown to directly control lineage commitment, whereas the majority of miRs control the functional maturation of the differentiated cells. Arrows indicate regulation during differentiation. [Powerpoint File]

Long Noncoding RNAs in Cardiac Development and Pathophysiology

Long Noncoding RNAs in Cardiac Development and Pathophysiology

Nicole Schonrock, Richard P. Harvey, John S. Mattick

Functions of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). lncRNAs can impact genetic output at almost every stage of a gene’s life cycle—from epigenetic regulation and chromatin remodeling to transcriptional and post transcriptional control to protein metabolism. Listed are a few examples of lncRNA gene regulation. [PowerPoint File]