Posts Tagged: communication

Circulating Platelets as Mediators of Immunity, Inflammation, and Thrombosis

Circulating Platelets as Mediators of Immunity, Inflammation, and Thrombosis

Milka Koupenova, Lauren Clancy, Heather A. Corkrey, Jane E. Freedman

Platelet and circulating cell interactions during infection initiate the innate or adaptive immune response. Platelets achieve cell-to-cell communication during bacterial or viral infection either by direct interaction with white blood cells (WBCs) through surface expression of platelet proteins or through indirect protein release from their α- or δ-granules. Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV)–activated platelets interact with neutrophils in a TLR7 (Toll-like receptor 7)-dependent manner. Coxsackievirus B (CVB)–activated platelets bind to neutrophils in a phosphatidylserine (PS)-dependent manner. Dengue and influenza increase microparticle release; dengue-mediated microparticles contain IL-1β (interleukin 1β). Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)–activated platelets interact with neutrophils, monocytes, B cells, T cells, and dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Vaccinia-bound platelets have reduced aggregation potential in the presence of ADP, collagen, or thrombin. The specific pathways by which platelets respond to herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 or HSV2 are currently unknown. During bacterial infection, platelet interactions with complement C3 opsonized bacteria through GP1b (glycoprotein 1b; CD42) lead to slowing of bacterial clearance. DCs recognize the platelet–bacterial complexes, thereby inducing adaptive immunity. These platelet–bacterial interactions are true for Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. 5HT includes serotonin; and VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor. [Powerpoint File]

Circulating Platelets as Mediators of Immunity, Inflammation, and Thrombosis

Circulating Platelets as Mediators of Immunity, Inflammation, and Thrombosis

Milka Koupenova, Lauren Clancy, Heather A. Corkrey, Jane E. Freedman

Platelet-mediated interactions with vascular or circulating cells. Platelets interact with endothelial and immune cells in the circulation, orchestrating a response to microbes, inflammatory stimuli, and vessel damage. Through their TLRs (Toll-like receptors; or inflammatory signals), platelets can change their surface expression and release their granule content, thereby engaging different immune cells. Platelets form heterotypic aggregates (HAGs) and initiate innate immune responses in the presence of TLR agonists and viruses such as encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), coxsackievirus B (CVB), dengue, flu, HIV. Platelets can interact with dendritic cells (DC) through their P-selectin (platelet selectin), activate them to become antigen (Ag) presenting through their CD154. By releasing α- or δ-granule content which leads to IgG (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3) production and control of T-cell function, platelets engage the adaptive immune response. Similarly, platelets are able to activate the endothelium, make it more permeable, and mediate leukocyte trafficking to the inflamed endothelium. Proteins in bold represent changes of expression on the platelet surface. Continuous lines represent direct binding; dotted lines represent interaction through secretion. 5HT indicates serotonin; CMV, cytomegalovirus; ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1; IL, interleukin; PF4, platelet factor 4; PSGL1, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1; RANTES, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted; TGF-β; transforming growth factor-β; and VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. [Powerpoint File]