Posts Tagged: biomarker

Extracellular Vesicles in Metabolic Syndrome

Extracellular Vesicles in Metabolic Syndrome

M. Carmen Martínez, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) participate in the development of atherosclerotic plaque. EVMP from smooth muscle cells (pink) induce endothelial dysfunction and macrophage infiltration in the vessel wall through the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and p38 activation in endothelial cells. EVEXO derived from dendritic cells (blue) increase endothelial inflammation by activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway and increasing expression of proinflammatory molecules, including vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM1), and E-selectin. [Powerpoint File]

Extracellular Vesicles in Metabolic Syndrome

Extracellular Vesicles in Metabolic Syndrome

M. Carmen Martínez, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina

Effects of extracellular vesicles (EVs) on blood vessel. EVMP from endothelial cells (dark pink) transfer miR-503 to pericytes and subsequently inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, resulting in decreased migration and proliferation. EVEXO from smooth muscle cells (pink) induce downregulation of LC3 II, ATG5, and Beclin-1 expression in endothelial cells. EVEXO from macrophages (green) evoke intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) overexpression in endothelial cells and reduce level of miR-17. Also, macrophage foam cell–derived EVs favor both migration and adhesion of vascular smooth muscle cells by activating ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) and Akt (protein kinase B/AKT) pathways and by transfer integrins β1 and α5 into vascular smooth muscle cells. EVMP from metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients act on smooth muscle cells and induce overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and monocyte chemoattractant molecule (MCP)-1, leading to vascular hyporeactivity. Also, these EVMP directly act on endothelial cells evoking reduced nitric oxide (NO) production, enhanced cytosolic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and unfolding protein response (UPR). All effects of EVMP from MetS patients are mediated by the interaction Fas/FasL. [Powerpoint File]

MicroRNA Biomarkers and Platelet Reactivity: The Clot Thickens

MicroRNA Biomarkers and Platelet Reactivity: The Clot Thickens

Nicholas Sunderland, Philipp Skroblin, Temo Barwari, Rachael P. Huntley, Ruifang Lu, Abhishek Joshi, Ruth C. Lovering, Manuel Mayr

MiRNAs and platelet reactivity. Association of miR-126 and miR-223 levels in platelet-poor plasma (PPP) to the VerifyNow P2Y12 aggregation test (A) and the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation assay (B) in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy for 30 days postacute coronary syndrome. Note that fewer samples were measured with the VerifyNow (n=39) compared with the VASP assay (n=123). PRU denotes P2Y12 reaction units (x axis). Higher PRU values reflect higher P2Y12-mediated platelet reactivity. [Powerpoint File]

MicroRNA Biomarkers and Platelet Reactivity: The Clot Thickens

MicroRNA Biomarkers and Platelet Reactivity: The Clot Thickens

Nicholas Sunderland, Philipp Skroblin, Temo Barwari, Rachael P. Huntley, Ruifang Lu, Abhishek Joshi, Ruth C. Lovering, Manuel Mayr

Choice of samples. A, Workflow for the preparation of platelet-poor plasma (PPP) from platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Addition of prostacyclin inhibits platelet activation during centrifugation. B, Concerns with regards to miRNA measurements in the different samples range from a contamination with leukocytes in PRP, proteolytic activity in serum to residual platelets in plasma. PRP and serum should reflect platelet miRNA content; PPP platelet miRNA release; plasma samples will reflect extracellular miRNA content but may additionally reflect either, platelet miRNA content or release. This depends on the amount of residual platelets in the plasma samples or platelet activation during plasma preparation, in particular during centrifugation. [Powerpoint File]

Evolving Treatments for Acute Ischemic Stroke

Evolving Treatments for Acute Ischemic Stroke

Charlotte Zerna*, Janka Hegedus*, Michael D. Hill

Computed tomographic perfusion image. Time to maximum (Tmax) functional maps show ischemic core volume (tissue that will die if reperfusion occurs after 90 minutes). There is no region with low cerebral blood volume (CBV). [Powerpoint File]