New Insights Into the Role of mTOR Signaling in the Cardiovascular System

New Insights Into the Role of mTOR Signaling in the Cardiovascular System

Sebastiano Sciarretta, Maurizio Forte, Giacomo Frati, Junichi Sadoshima

Schematic overview of the upstream signaling modulators of mTORC1 (mTOR [mechanistic target of rapamycin] complex 1) and mTORC2. Signaling network regulating mTORC1 and mTORC2 activity. Arrows indicate the effects of different conditions or cellular events on mTOR activity. Red arrows represent maladaptive input signals, whereas green arrows represent adaptive input signals. Akt indicates protein kinase B; AMPK, adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase; CASTOR 1/2, cellular arginine sensor for mTORC1 1/2; ERK1/2, extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2; GATOR 1/2, GAP activity toward Rags 1/2; GSK-3β, glycogen synthase kinase-3β; IKKβ, inhibitor of NF-κB kinase-β; PI3K, phosphoinositide 3 kinase; PRAS40, proline-rich Akt substrate 40; Rag, Ras-related GTPase; Raptor, regulatory-associated protein of mTOR; REDD1, regulated in development and DNA damage responses 1; Rheb, Ras homolog enriched in brain; and TSC1/2, tuberous sclerosis protein 1/2. [Powerpoint File]

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