Flavonoids, Dairy Foods, and Cardiovascular and Metabolic Health: A Review of Emerging Biologic Pathways

Flavonoids, Dairy Foods, and Cardiovascular and Metabolic Health: A Review of Emerging Biologic Pathways

Dariush Mozaffarian, Jason H.Y. Wu

Relevant characteristics of dairy foods and selected molecular pathways potentially linked to cardiometabolic disease risk. Dairy foods are characterized by a complex mixture of nutrients and processing methods that may influence cardiovascular and metabolic pathways. Examples of relevant constituents include specific fatty acids, calcium, and probiotics. Relevant processing methods may include animal breeding and feeding, fermentation, selection and cultivation of bacterial and yeast strains (eg, as fermentation starters), and homogenization. Such modifications can alter the food’s composition (eg, fermentation leads to production of vitamin K2 from vitamin K1) and its lipid structures (eg, homogenization damages MFGM), each of which can affect downstream molecular and signaling pathways. BCSFA indicates branched-chain saturated fats; GLP-1, glucagon-like peptide 1; MCSFA, medium-chain saturated fats; MFGM, milk-fat globule membranes; MGP, matrix glutamate protein; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; and OCSFA, odd-chain saturated fats. (Illustration Credit: Ben Smith.) [Powerpoint File]

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